Scientific paper ID 2457 : 2024/1

Roumen A. Ivanova, Nevena I. Babunska-Ivanovaa, Sarmat D. Vaneevb

Only with geodetic and geotechnical methods we can interpret the mechanism, type, scope, duration, dynamics and other characteristics of deformation processes of terrains around roads and railways. Geodetic and geotechnical monitoring is a system for monitoring, analyzing and controlling the steady state of the Earth`s crust, terrains, buildings, and facilities. The monitoring shall be carried out before construction, during the construction period, and during the operation period, when there is a danger to the safety of the facility and buildings. The measurement accuracy depends on the minimum deformations to be recorded, the expected size, the speed of movement, etc. The appropriate measurement method is based on the accuracy with which the corresponding displacement of the observation point is determined. The chosen method is used without changes from the beginning to the end of defining the deformations, and the accuracy of the measurements in the individual epochs must be the same. The deformation survey of landslides and terrains with geodetic methods is of particular importance because it allows the identification of the minimum displacements that are critical to safety. Then according to those characteristics the appropriate methods - building a retaining wall, gabions, ground and cable anchors, covering the slope with steel mesh, etc., should be suggested by geotechnical engineers as geotechnical natural hazards protection systems and methods against the destructive natural process. Sometimes the geotechnical protection systems are not enough and it is necessary to build false tunnels. Different types of constructions for protection from natural hazards are discussed here. The article summarizes natural hazards, geodetic and geotechnical monitoring techniques and protection (prevention) systems.

natural hazards protection systems deformation surveys roads railwaysnatural hazards protection systems deformation surveys roads railwaysRoumen A. Ivanova Nevena I. Babunska-Ivanovaa Sarmat D. Vaneevb


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